What if the Hawaiian volcano were really erupting?
On a hot August day in 2016, two weeks after Hawaii erupted in a massive eruption that killed more than 8,000 people, a group of scientists headed into the volcanic mountain of Kilauea for a long-awaited scientific study of the island’s volcanoes.
The team had long dreamed of conducting a seismic survey, and after two months of hard work, they had the answer.
The seismic team from the University of Hawaii was among hundreds of scientists, engineers, geologists and geophysicists who had been working to understand how the Hawaiian islands’ volcanoes work.
But now they were ready to go.
The island is home to more than a quarter of the world’s volcanic eruptions, and the Hawaiian Islands are a major source of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that causes global warming.
Kilaai, which erupted in 1991, is a volcano that has exploded over and over in recent decades.
It has produced an array of massive explosions that have killed hundreds of people and left dozens of people dead.
Its explosive eruption in March 2010 killed more people than any other eruption in the United States.
And while scientists have studied the volcanic systems on Kilaia and the surrounding islands for more than two decades, their data hasn’t always been as clear-cut as they hoped.
They needed seismic data to confirm that Kila and other Hawaiian volcanoes are indeed producing enormous earthquakes and other geophysical changes.
The data would provide the first real insight into the processes that create earthquakes in Hawaiian volcanos, which are a complex mix of natural forces, such as the interaction of hot springs, ocean currents and other natural forces.
“We’re just really excited about it,” said Kevin Johnson, a geophysicist at the University, in Honolulu, when he learned of the proposal.
Johnson, who studies volcanic systems at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Pacific Northwest Research Laboratory in Seattle, Washington, said he was thrilled that the project was finally moving forward.
“It’s really cool,” he said.
“But it’s going to be a long time before we get that data.”
The seismic survey The scientists had been waiting for a year for seismic data from the Hawaiian volcanosphere, a volcanic system that extends from the island of Oahu to the islands of Maui and Kauai.
The volcano is located about 150 miles north of Honolulu, just east of where scientists had previously suspected that the volcano was erupting.
In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey sent a team to study the volcano to determine whether its eruptions are causing a rise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in Oahu began analyzing the seismic data in 2018, looking for signs of an explosion.
They were especially interested in the seismic signal from Kila’i, because the data showed that the volcanic system was producing seismic waves that were similar to the waves from an explosion, Johnson said.
The scientists also sent a detailed plan for the seismic survey to a seismologist at the UH.
The plan, which was submitted to the Hawaiian National Seismic Network, a government agency in Honolulu that tracks earthquakes, included an extensive list of questions about the seismic signals and the volcanic activity.
“There are lots of different ways that you could look at seismic data,” said Keith W. Peebles, an associate professor of geophysics at UH and the lead author of the study.
“The key is to be aware of the way you’re interpreting it, to understand where you’re going, and then make the right decision to do it.”
Peels said the seismic team had to make several technical changes to their original proposal, but it still had the necessary data to complete the study in 2018.
“In many ways, this is probably the most robust, comprehensive study to date,” he added.
“That’s really saying a lot, because this is something that was almost done a decade ago.”
What is seismic?
The term seismicity, in the scientific community, means the frequency of seismic waves.
A seismic wave is a burst of energy, and is produced by the earth’s crust moving beneath the earth.
A burst of seismic energy is a phenomenon in which the crust is moving beneath its surface.
For example, when a ship is moving through water, the water is moving with a greater speed than when it is moving along land.
In some cases, this movement of the crust causes earthquakes, and seismic waves can be measured by a device called a seismograph.
These waves are produced by large earthquakes, which can last a few minutes or a few seconds.
But earthquakes can also occur more slowly, at a rate of only a few centimeters per second, which is slower than the rate at which water is rising in a river.
A more accurate measure of seismic activity, however, is the volume of seismic wave, or the volume in which a seismic wave can